Struct spinoso_string::String[][src]

pub struct String { /* fields omitted */ }

Implementations

impl String[src]

#[must_use]pub const fn new() -> Self[src]

Constructs a new, empty String.

The String is conventionally UTF-8.

The string will not allocate until bytes are pushed onto it.

Examples

use spinoso_string::{Encoding, String};

const S: String = String::new();
assert_eq!(S.encoding(), Encoding::Utf8);

#[must_use]pub fn with_capacity(capacity: usize) -> Self[src]

Constructs a new, empty String with the specified capacity.

The String is [conventionally UTF-8].

The string will be able to hold exactly capacity bytes without reallocating. If capacity is 0, the vector will not allocate.

It is important to note that although the returned string has the capacity specified, the string will have a zero length. For an explanation of the difference between length and capacity, see Capacity and reallocation.

Examples

Encoding, capacity, and length:

use spinoso_string::{Encoding, String};

let s = String::with_capacity(10);
assert_eq!(s.encoding(), Encoding::Utf8);
assert_eq!(s.capacity(), 10);
assert_eq!(s.len(), 0);

Allocation:

use spinoso_string::{Encoding, String};

let mut s = String::with_capacity(10);

for ch in 'a'..='j' {
    s.push_byte(ch as u8);
}
// 10 elements have been inserted without reallocating.
assert_eq!(s.capacity(), 10);
assert_eq!(s.len(), 10);

#[must_use]pub fn with_capacity_and_encoding(capacity: usize, encoding: Encoding) -> Self[src]

#[must_use]pub fn utf8(buf: Vec<u8>) -> Self[src]

#[must_use]pub fn ascii(buf: Vec<u8>) -> Self[src]

#[must_use]pub fn binary(buf: Vec<u8>) -> Self[src]

impl String[src]

#[must_use]pub const fn encoding(&self) -> Encoding[src]

Returns the Encoding of this String.

Examples

use spinoso_string::{Encoding, String};

let s = String::utf8(b"xyz".to_vec());
assert_eq!(s.encoding(), Encoding::Utf8);

#[must_use]pub fn as_slice(&self) -> &[u8]

Notable traits for &'_ [u8]

impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]
[src]

Extracts a slice containing the entire byte string.

Equivalent to &s[..].

#[must_use]pub fn as_mut_slice(&mut self) -> &mut [u8]

Notable traits for &'_ [u8]

impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]
[src]

Extracts a mutable slice containing the entire byte string.

Equivalent to &mut s[..].

#[must_use]pub fn as_ptr(&self) -> *const u8[src]

#[must_use]pub fn as_mut_ptr(&mut self) -> *mut u8[src]

#[must_use]pub fn into_vec(self) -> Vec<u8>[src]

Converts self into a vector without clones or allocation.

This method consumes this String and returns its inner Vec<u8> buffer.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::from("hello");
let buf = s.into_vec();
// `s` cannot be used anymore because it has been converted into `buf`.

assert_eq!(buf, b"hello".to_vec());

#[must_use]pub fn into_boxed_slice(self) -> Box<[u8]>[src]

Converts the vector into Box<[u8]>.

Note that this will drop any excess capacity.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::from("abc");
let slice = s.into_boxed_slice();

Any excess capacity is removed:

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::with_capacity(10);
s.extend_from_slice(&[b'a', b'b', b'c']);

assert_eq!(s.capacity(), 10);
let slice = s.into_boxed_slice();
assert_eq!(slice.into_vec().capacity(), 3);

#[must_use]pub fn capacity(&self) -> usize[src]

Returns the number of bytes the string can hold without reallocating.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::with_capacity(10);
assert_eq!(s.capacity(), 10);

#[must_use]pub fn is_empty(&self) -> bool[src]

Returns true if the vector contains no bytes.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::new();
assert!(s.is_empty());

s.push_char('x');
assert!(!s.is_empty());

#[must_use]pub fn len(&self) -> usize[src]

Returns the number of bytes in the string, also referred to as its ‘length’ or ‘bytesize’.

See also bytesize.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::from("xyz");
assert_eq!(s.len(), 3);

impl String[src]

#[must_use]pub fn iter(&self) -> Iter<'_>

Notable traits for Iter<'a>

impl<'a> Iterator for Iter<'a> type Item = &'a u8;
[src]

Returns an iterator over this string’s underlying byte slice.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::from("abc");
let mut iterator = s.iter();

assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&b'a'));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&b'b'));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&b'c'));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), None);

#[must_use]pub fn iter_mut(&mut self) -> IterMut<'_>

Notable traits for IterMut<'a>

impl<'a> Iterator for IterMut<'a> type Item = &'a mut u8;
[src]

Returns an iterator that allows modifiying this string’s underlying byte slice.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::from("abc");

for byte in s.iter_mut() {
    *byte = b'x';
}

assert_eq!(s, "xxx");

#[must_use]pub fn bytes(&self) -> Bytes<'_>

Notable traits for Bytes<'a>

impl<'a> Iterator for Bytes<'a> type Item = u8;
[src]

Returns an iterator over the bytes in this byte string.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::utf8(b"foobar".to_vec());
let bytes: Vec<u8> = s.bytes().collect();
assert_eq!(bytes, s);

impl String[src]

pub fn reserve(&mut self, additional: usize)[src]

Reserves capacity for at least additional more bytes to be inserted in the given String. The string may reserve more space to avoid frequent reallocations. After calling reserve, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional. Does nothing if capacity is already sufficient.

Panics

Panics if the new capacity exceeds isize::MAX bytes.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::from("x");
s.reserve(10);
assert!(s.capacity() >= 11);

pub fn reserve_exact(&mut self, additional: usize)[src]

Reserves the minimum capacity for exactly additional more bytes to be inserted in the given String. After calling reserve_exact, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional. Does nothing if the capacity is already sufficient.

Note that the allocator may give the string more space than it requests. Therefore, capacity can not be relied upon to be precisely minimal. Prefer reserve if future insertions are expected.

Panics

Panics if the new capacity overflows usize.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::from("x");
s.reserve_exact(10);
assert!(s.capacity() >= 11);

pub fn shrink_to_fit(&mut self)[src]

Shrinks the capacity of the vector as much as possible.

It will drop down as close as possible to the length but the allocator may still inform the string that there is space for a few more bytes.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::with_capacity(10);
s.extend_from_slice(b"abc");
assert_eq!(s.capacity(), 10);
s.shrink_to_fit();
assert!(s.capacity() >= 3);

impl String[src]

#[must_use]pub fn get<I>(&self, index: I) -> Option<&I::Output> where
    I: SliceIndex<[u8]>, 
[src]

Returns a reference to a byte or sub-byteslice depending on the type of index.

  • If given a position, returns a reference to the byte at that position or None if out of bounds.
  • If given a range, returns the subslice corresponding to that range, or None if out of bounds.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::from("abc");
assert_eq!(s.get(1), Some(&b'b'));
assert_eq!(s.get(0..2), Some(&b"ab"[..]));
assert_eq!(s.get(3), None);
assert_eq!(s.get(0..4), None);

#[must_use]pub fn get_mut<I>(&mut self, index: I) -> Option<&mut I::Output> where
    I: SliceIndex<[u8]>, 
[src]

Returns a mutable reference to a byte or sub-byteslice depending on the type of index (see get) or None if the index is out of bounds.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::from("abc");

if let Some(byte) = s.get_mut(1) {
    *byte = b'x';
}
assert_eq!(s, "axc");

#[must_use]pub unsafe fn get_unchecked<I>(&self, index: I) -> &I::Output where
    I: SliceIndex<[u8]>, 
[src]

Returns a reference to a byte or sub-byteslice, without doing bounds checking.

For a safe alternative see get.

Safety

Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior even if the resulting reference is not used.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::from("abc");

unsafe {
    assert_eq!(s.get_unchecked(1), &b'b');
}

#[must_use]pub unsafe fn get_unchecked_mut<I>(&mut self, index: I) -> &mut I::Output where
    I: SliceIndex<[u8]>, 
[src]

Returns a mutable reference to a byte or sub-byteslice, without doing bounds checking.

For a safe alternative see get_mut.

Safety

Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior even if the resulting reference is not used.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::from("abc");

unsafe {
    let byte = s.get_unchecked_mut(1);
    *byte = b'x';
}
assert_eq!(s, "axc");

impl String[src]

pub fn push_byte(&mut self, byte: u8)[src]

Appends a given byte onto the end of this String.

The given byte is not required to be a valid byte given this String’s encoding because encodings are only conventional.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::utf8(b"UTF-8?".to_vec());
s.push_byte(0xFF);
assert_eq!(s, &b"UTF-8?\xFF"[..]);

pub fn try_push_codepoint(
    &mut self,
    codepoint: i64
) -> Result<(), InvalidCodepointError>
[src]

Try to append a given Unicode codepoint onto the end of this String.

This API is encoding-aware. For UTF-8 strings, the given integer is converted to a char before appending to this String using push_char. For ASCII and binary strings, the given integer is converted to a byte before appending to this String using push_byte.

This function can be used to implement the Ruby method String#<< for Integer arguments.

Errors

If this String is conventionally UTF-8 and the given codepoint is not a valid char, an error is returned.

If this String has ASCII or binary encoding and the given codepoint is not a valid byte, an error is returned.

Examples

For UTF-8 strings, the given codepoint is converted to a Unicode scalar value before appending:

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::utf8(b"".to_vec());
s.try_push_codepoint(b'a' as i64)?;
assert_eq!(s, "a");
assert!(s.try_push_codepoint(0xD83F).is_err());
assert!(s.try_push_codepoint(-1).is_err());

For ASCII and binary strings, the given codepoint must be a valid byte:

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::binary(b"".to_vec());
s.try_push_codepoint(b'a' as i64)?;
assert_eq!(s, "a");
assert!(s.try_push_codepoint(1024).is_err());
assert!(s.try_push_codepoint(-1).is_err());

pub fn push_char(&mut self, ch: char)[src]

Appends a given char onto the end of this String.

The given char is UTF-8 encoded and the UTF-8 bytes are appended to the end of this String.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::from("<3");
s.push_char('💎');
assert_eq!(s, &b"<3\xF0\x9F\x92\x8E"[..]); // "<3💎"

pub fn push_str(&mut self, s: &str)[src]

Appends a given string slice onto the end of this String.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::utf8(b"spinoso".to_vec());
s.push_str("-string");
assert_eq!(s, "spinoso-string");

pub fn extend_from_slice(&mut self, other: &[u8])[src]

Copies and appends all bytes in a slice to the String.

Iterates over the slice other, copies each element, and then appends it to this String. The other byte slice is traversed in-order.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::from("a");
s.extend_from_slice(&b"bc"[..]);
assert_eq!(s, "abc");

impl String[src]

pub fn concat<T: AsRef<[u8]>>(&mut self, other: T)[src]

Appends the given bytes to this String.

See also Extend.

This function can be used to implement the Ruby method String#<< for String arguments.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::ascii(b"abc".to_vec());
s.concat(", easy as 123");
assert_eq!(s, "abc, easy as 123");

#[must_use]pub fn is_ascii_only(&self) -> bool[src]

Returns true for a string which has only ASCII characters.

ASCII is an encoding that defines 128 codepoints. A byte corresponds to an ASCII codepoint if and only if it is in the inclusive range [0, 127].

This function ignores this String’s encoding.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::utf8("abc".as_bytes().to_vec());
assert!(s.is_ascii_only());
let s = String::utf8("abc\u{6666}".as_bytes().to_vec());
assert!(!s.is_ascii_only());

pub fn make_binary(&mut self)[src]

Change the encoding of this String to Encoding::Binary.

This function can be used to implement the Ruby method String#b.

Examples

use spinoso_string::{Encoding, String};

let mut s = String::utf8(b"xyz".to_vec());
assert_eq!(s.encoding(), Encoding::Utf8);
s.make_binary();
assert_eq!(s.encoding(), Encoding::Binary);

#[must_use]pub fn bytesize(&self) -> usize[src]

Returns the length of this String in bytes.

bytesize is an Encoding-oblivious API and is equivalent to String::len.

This function can be used to implement the Ruby method String#bytesize.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::utf8("💎".as_bytes().to_vec());
assert_eq!(s.bytesize(), 4);
assert_eq!(s.bytesize(), s.len());

pub fn make_capitalized(&mut self)[src]

Modify this String to have the first character converted to uppercase and the remainder to lowercase.

#[must_use]pub fn ascii_casecmp(&self, other: &[u8]) -> Ordering[src]

#[must_use]pub fn unicode_casecmp(&self, other: &String, options: CaseFold) -> Option<bool>[src]

#[must_use]pub fn center<'a, 'b>(
    &'a self,
    width: usize,
    padding: Option<&'b [u8]>
) -> Center<'a, 'b>

Notable traits for Center<'a, 'b>

impl<'a, 'b> Iterator for Center<'a, 'b> type Item = u8;
[src]

Centers this String in width with the given padding.

This function returns an iterator that yields u8.

If width is greater than the length of this String, the returned iterator yields a byte sequence of length width with the byte content of this String centered and padded with the given padding; otherwise, yields the original bytes.

If the given padding is None, the String is padded with an ASCII space.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::from("hello");

assert_eq!(s.center(4, None).collect::<Vec<_>>(), b"hello");
assert_eq!(s.center(20, None).collect::<Vec<_>>(), b"       hello        ");
assert_eq!(s.center(20, Some(&b"123"[..])).collect::<Vec<_>>(), b"1231231hello12312312");

This iterator is encoding-aware. Conventionally UTF-8 strings are iterated by UTF-8 byte sequences.

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::from("💎");

assert_eq!(s.center(3, None).collect::<Vec<_>>(), " 💎 ".as_bytes());

#[must_use]pub fn chomp<T: AsRef<[u8]>>(&mut self, separator: Option<T>) -> bool[src]

Modifies this String in-place with the given record separator removed from the end of str (if given).

If separator is None (i.e. separator has not been changed from the default Ruby record separator, then chomp also removes carriage return characters (that is it will remove \n, \r, and \r\n). If separator is an empty string, it will remove all trailing newlines from the string.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::utf8(b"This is a paragraph.\r\n\n\n".to_vec());
let modified = s.chomp(None::<&[u8]>);
assert!(modified);
assert_eq!(s, "This is a paragraph.");

let mut s = String::utf8(b"This is a paragraph.\r\n\n\n".to_vec());
let modified = s.chomp(Some(""));
assert!(modified);
assert_eq!(s, "This is a paragraph.\r");

let mut s = String::utf8(b"This is a paragraph.".to_vec());
let modified = s.chomp(Some("."));
assert!(modified);
assert_eq!(s, "This is a paragraph");

let mut s = String::utf8(b"This is a paragraph.".to_vec());
let modified = s.chomp(Some("abc"));
assert!(!modified);
assert_eq!(s, "This is a paragraph.");

#[must_use]pub fn chop(&mut self) -> bool[src]

Modifies this String in-place and removes the last character.

This method returns a bool that indicates if this string was modified.

If the string ends with \r\n, both characters are removed. When applying chop to an empty string, the string remains empty.

String::chomp is often a safer alternative, as it leaves the string unchanged if it doesn’t end in a record separator.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let mut s = String::utf8(b"This is a paragraph.\r\n".to_vec());
let modified = s.chop();
assert!(modified);
assert_eq!(s, "This is a paragraph.");

let mut s = String::utf8(b"This is a paragraph.".to_vec());
let modified = s.chop();
assert!(modified);
assert_eq!(s, "This is a paragraph");

let mut s = String::utf8(b"".to_vec());
let modified = s.chop();
assert!(!modified);
assert_eq!(s, "");

let mut s = String::utf8(b"x".to_vec());
let modified = s.chop();
assert!(modified);
assert_eq!(s, "");

#[must_use]pub fn chr(&self) -> &[u8]

Notable traits for &'_ [u8]

impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]
[src]

Returns a one-character string at the beginning of the string.

Examples

Conventionally UTF-8 Strings perform a partial UTF-8 decode to compute the first character.

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::utf8(b"abcde".to_vec());
assert_eq!(s.chr(), &b"a"[..]);

let s = String::utf8(b"".to_vec());
assert_eq!(s.chr(), &[]);

let s = String::utf8("🦀spinoso💎".as_bytes().to_vec());
assert_eq!(s.chr(), &b"\xF0\x9F\xA6\x80"[..]);

let s = String::utf8(b"\xFFspinoso".to_vec());
assert_eq!(s.chr(), &b"\xFF"[..]);

For ASCII and binary Strings this function returns a slice of the first byte or the empty slice if the String is empty.

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::binary(b"abcde".to_vec());
assert_eq!(s.chr(), &b"a"[..]);

let s = String::binary(b"".to_vec());
assert_eq!(s.chr(), &[]);

let s = String::binary("🦀spinoso💎".as_bytes().to_vec());
assert_eq!(s.chr(), &b"\xF0"[..]);

let s = String::binary(b"\xFFspinoso".to_vec());
assert_eq!(s.chr(), &b"\xFF"[..]);

#[must_use]pub fn index<T: AsRef<[u8]>>(
    &self,
    needle: T,
    offset: Option<usize>
) -> Option<usize>
[src]

Returns the index of the first occurrence of the given substring in this String.

Returns None if not found. If the second parameter is present, it specifies the position in the string to begin the search.

This function can be used to implement String#index.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::from("hello");
assert_eq!(s.index("e", None), Some(1));
assert_eq!(s.index("lo", None), Some(3));
assert_eq!(s.index("a", None), None);
assert_eq!(s.index("l", Some(3)), Some(3));

#[must_use]pub fn rindex<T: AsRef<[u8]>>(
    &self,
    needle: T,
    offset: Option<usize>
) -> Option<usize>
[src]

pub fn ord(&self) -> Result<u32, OrdError>[src]

Returns the Integer ordinal of a one-character string.

Errors

If this String is empty, an error is returned.

If this String is conventionally UTF-8 and the string contents begin with an invalid UTF-8 byte sequence, an error is returned.

impl String[src]

#[must_use]pub fn chars(&self) -> Chars<'_>

Notable traits for Chars<'a>

impl<'a> Iterator for Chars<'a> type Item = &'a [u8];
[src]

Returns an iterator over the chars of a String.

This function is encoding-aware. Strings with UTF-8 encoding are only conventionally UTF-8. This iterator yields &[u8] byte slices that correspond to either a valid UTF-8 byte sequence or a single invalid UTF-8 byte. For ASCII encoded and binary encoded strings, this iterator yields slices of single bytes.

For UTF-8 encoded strings, the yielded byte slices can be parsed into chars with str::from_utf8 and str::chars.

Examples

Iterating over the characters of a conventionally UTF-8 string:

use core::str;
use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::utf8(b"ab\xF0\x9F\x92\x8E\xFF".to_vec());
let mut chars = s.chars();
assert_eq!(chars.next(), Some(&b"a"[..]));
assert_eq!(chars.next().map(str::from_utf8), Some(Ok("b")));
assert_eq!(chars.next(), Some(&[0xF0, 0x9F, 0x92, 0x8E][..]));
assert_eq!(chars.next(), Some(&b"\xFF"[..]));
assert_eq!(chars.next(), None);

Iterating over the characters of a binary string:

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::binary("💎".as_bytes().to_vec());
let mut chars = s.chars();
assert_eq!(chars.next(), Some(&[0xF0][..]));
assert_eq!(chars.next(), Some(&[0x9F][..]));
assert_eq!(chars.next(), Some(&[0x92][..]));
assert_eq!(chars.next(), Some(&[0x8E][..]));
assert_eq!(chars.next(), None);

#[must_use]pub fn char_len(&self) -> usize[src]

Returns the character length of this String.

This function is encoding-aware. For Strings with UTF-8 encoding, multi-byte Unicode characters are length 1 and invalid UTF-8 bytes are length 1. For Strings with ASCII encoding or binary encoding, this function is equivalent to len and bytesize.

Examples

use spinoso_string::String;

let s = String::utf8(b"abc\xF0\x9F\x92\x8E\xFF".to_vec()); // "abc💎\xFF"
assert_eq!(s.char_len(), 5);

let b = String::binary(b"abc\xF0\x9F\x92\x8E\xFF".to_vec()); // "abc💎\xFF"
assert_eq!(b.char_len(), 8);

#[must_use]pub fn is_valid_encoding(&self) -> bool[src]

Returns true for a String which is encoded correctly.

For this method to return true, Strings with conventionally UTF-8 must be well-formed UTF-8; ASCII-encoded Strings must only contain bytes in the range 0..=127; binary-encoded Strings may contain any byte sequence.

This method is suitable for implementing the Ruby method String#valid_encoding?.

Examples

use spinoso_string::{Encoding, String};

let s = String::utf8(b"xyz".to_vec());
assert!(s.is_valid_encoding());
let s = String::utf8("🚀".to_string().into_bytes());
assert!(s.is_valid_encoding());
let s = String::utf8(b"abc\xFF\xFExyz".to_vec());
assert!(!s.is_valid_encoding());

let s = String::ascii(b"xyz".to_vec());
assert!(s.is_valid_encoding());
let s = String::ascii("🚀".to_string().into_bytes());
assert!(!s.is_valid_encoding());
let s = String::ascii(b"abc\xFF\xFExyz".to_vec());
assert!(!s.is_valid_encoding());

let s = String::binary(b"xyz".to_vec());
assert!(s.is_valid_encoding());
let s = String::binary("🚀".to_string().into_bytes());
assert!(s.is_valid_encoding());
let s = String::binary(b"abc\xFF\xFExyz".to_vec());
assert!(s.is_valid_encoding());

Methods from Deref<Target = [u8]>

pub const fn len(&self) -> usize1.0.0 (const: 1.39.0)[src]

Returns the number of elements in the slice.

Examples

let a = [1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(a.len(), 3);

pub const fn is_empty(&self) -> bool1.0.0 (const: 1.39.0)[src]

Returns true if the slice has a length of 0.

Examples

let a = [1, 2, 3];
assert!(!a.is_empty());

pub const fn first(&self) -> Option<&T>1.0.0[src]

Returns the first element of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples

let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&10), v.first());

let w: &[i32] = &[];
assert_eq!(None, w.first());

pub const fn first_mut(&mut self) -> Option<&mut T>1.0.0[src]

Returns a mutable pointer to the first element of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples

let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some(first) = x.first_mut() {
    *first = 5;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[5, 1, 2]);

pub const fn split_first(&self) -> Option<(&T, &[T])>1.5.0[src]

Returns the first and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples

let x = &[0, 1, 2];

if let Some((first, elements)) = x.split_first() {
    assert_eq!(first, &0);
    assert_eq!(elements, &[1, 2]);
}

pub const fn split_first_mut(&mut self) -> Option<(&mut T, &mut [T])>1.5.0[src]

Returns the first and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples

let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some((first, elements)) = x.split_first_mut() {
    *first = 3;
    elements[0] = 4;
    elements[1] = 5;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[3, 4, 5]);

pub const fn split_last(&self) -> Option<(&T, &[T])>1.5.0[src]

Returns the last and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples

let x = &[0, 1, 2];

if let Some((last, elements)) = x.split_last() {
    assert_eq!(last, &2);
    assert_eq!(elements, &[0, 1]);
}

pub const fn split_last_mut(&mut self) -> Option<(&mut T, &mut [T])>1.5.0[src]

Returns the last and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples

let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some((last, elements)) = x.split_last_mut() {
    *last = 3;
    elements[0] = 4;
    elements[1] = 5;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[4, 5, 3]);

pub const fn last(&self) -> Option<&T>1.0.0[src]

Returns the last element of the slice, or None if it is empty.

Examples

let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&30), v.last());

let w: &[i32] = &[];
assert_eq!(None, w.last());

pub const fn last_mut(&mut self) -> Option<&mut T>1.0.0[src]

Returns a mutable pointer to the last item in the slice.

Examples

let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some(last) = x.last_mut() {
    *last = 10;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[0, 1, 10]);

pub fn get<I>(&self, index: I) -> Option<&<I as SliceIndex<[T]>>::Output> where
    I: SliceIndex<[T]>, 
1.0.0[src]

Returns a reference to an element or subslice depending on the type of index.

  • If given a position, returns a reference to the element at that position or None if out of bounds.
  • If given a range, returns the subslice corresponding to that range, or None if out of bounds.

Examples

let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&40), v.get(1));
assert_eq!(Some(&[10, 40][..]), v.get(0..2));
assert_eq!(None, v.get(3));
assert_eq!(None, v.get(0..4));

pub fn get_mut<I>(
    &mut self,
    index: I
) -> Option<&mut <I as SliceIndex<[T]>>::Output> where
    I: SliceIndex<[T]>, 
1.0.0[src]

Returns a mutable reference to an element or subslice depending on the type of index (see get) or None if the index is out of bounds.

Examples

let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some(elem) = x.get_mut(1) {
    *elem = 42;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[0, 42, 2]);

pub unsafe fn get_unchecked<I>(
    &self,
    index: I
) -> &<I as SliceIndex<[T]>>::Output where
    I: SliceIndex<[T]>, 
1.0.0[src]

Returns a reference to an element or subslice, without doing bounds checking.

For a safe alternative see get.

Safety

Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior even if the resulting reference is not used.

Examples

let x = &[1, 2, 4];

unsafe {
    assert_eq!(x.get_unchecked(1), &2);
}

pub unsafe fn get_unchecked_mut<I>(
    &mut self,
    index: I
) -> &mut <I as SliceIndex<[T]>>::Output where
    I: SliceIndex<[T]>, 
1.0.0[src]

Returns a mutable reference to an element or subslice, without doing bounds checking.

For a safe alternative see get_mut.

Safety

Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior even if the resulting reference is not used.

Examples

let x = &mut [1, 2, 4];

unsafe {
    let elem = x.get_unchecked_mut(1);
    *elem = 13;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[1, 13, 4]);

pub const fn as_ptr(&self) -> *const T1.0.0 (const: 1.32.0)[src]

Returns a raw pointer to the slice’s buffer.

The caller must ensure that the slice outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage.

The caller must also ensure that the memory the pointer (non-transitively) points to is never written to (except inside an UnsafeCell) using this pointer or any pointer derived from it. If you need to mutate the contents of the slice, use as_mut_ptr.

Modifying the container referenced by this slice may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

Examples

let x = &[1, 2, 4];
let x_ptr = x.as_ptr();

unsafe {
    for i in 0..x.len() {
        assert_eq!(x.get_unchecked(i), &*x_ptr.add(i));
    }
}

pub const fn as_mut_ptr(&mut self) -> *mut T1.0.0[src]

Returns an unsafe mutable pointer to the slice’s buffer.

The caller must ensure that the slice outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage.

Modifying the container referenced by this slice may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

Examples

let x = &mut [1, 2, 4];
let x_ptr = x.as_mut_ptr();

unsafe {
    for i in 0..x.len() {
        *x_ptr.add(i) += 2;
    }
}
assert_eq!(x, &[3, 4, 6]);

pub const fn as_ptr_range(&self) -> Range<*const T>1.48.0[src]

Returns the two raw pointers spanning the slice.

The returned range is half-open, which means that the end pointer points one past the last element of the slice. This way, an empty slice is represented by two equal pointers, and the difference between the two pointers represents the size of the slice.

See as_ptr for warnings on using these pointers. The end pointer requires extra caution, as it does not point to a valid element in the slice.

This function is useful for interacting with foreign interfaces which use two pointers to refer to a range of elements in memory, as is common in C++.

It can also be useful to check if a pointer to an element refers to an element of this slice:

let a = [1, 2, 3];
let x = &a[1] as *const _;
let y = &5 as *const _;

assert!(a.as_ptr_range().contains(&x));
assert!(!a.as_ptr_range().contains(&y));

pub const fn as_mut_ptr_range(&mut self) -> Range<*mut T>1.48.0[src]

Returns the two unsafe mutable pointers spanning the slice.

The returned range is half-open, which means that the end pointer points one past the last element of the slice. This way, an empty slice is represented by two equal pointers, and the difference between the two pointers represents the size of the slice.

See as_mut_ptr for warnings on using these pointers. The end pointer requires extra caution, as it does not point to a valid element in the slice.

This function is useful for interacting with foreign interfaces which use two pointers to refer to a range of elements in memory, as is common in C++.

pub fn swap(&mut self, a: usize, b: usize)1.0.0[src]

Swaps two elements in the slice.

Arguments

  • a - The index of the first element
  • b - The index of the second element

Panics

Panics if a or b are out of bounds.

Examples

let mut v = ["a", "b", "c", "d"];
v.swap(1, 3);
assert!(v == ["a", "d", "c", "b"]);

pub fn reverse(&mut self)1.0.0[src]

Reverses the order of elements in the slice, in place.

Examples

let mut v = [1, 2, 3];
v.reverse();
assert!(v == [3, 2, 1]);

pub fn iter(&self) -> Iter<'_, T>1.0.0[src]

Returns an iterator over the slice.

Examples

let x = &[1, 2, 4];
let mut iterator = x.iter();

assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&1));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&2));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&4));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), None);

pub fn iter_mut(&mut self) -> IterMut<'_, T>1.0.0[src]

Returns an iterator that allows modifying each value.

Examples

let x = &mut [1, 2, 4];
for elem in x.iter_mut() {
    *elem += 2;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[3, 4, 6]);

pub fn windows(&self, size: usize) -> Windows<'_, T>1.0.0[src]

Returns an iterator over all contiguous windows of length size. The windows overlap. If the slice is shorter than size, the iterator returns no values.

Panics

Panics if size is 0.

Examples

let slice = ['r', 'u', 's', 't'];
let mut iter = slice.windows(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'u']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['u', 's']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['s', 't']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

If the slice is shorter than size:

let slice = ['f', 'o', 'o'];
let mut iter = slice.windows(4);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

pub fn chunks(&self, chunk_size: usize) -> Chunks<'_, T>1.0.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See chunks_exact for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and rchunks for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples

let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.chunks(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l', 'o']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'e']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['m']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

pub fn chunks_mut(&mut self, chunk_size: usize) -> ChunksMut<'_, T>1.0.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are mutable slices, and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See chunks_exact_mut for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and rchunks_mut for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples

let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.chunks_mut(2) {
    for elem in chunk.iter_mut() {
        *elem += count;
    }
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[1, 1, 2, 2, 3]);

pub fn chunks_exact(&self, chunk_size: usize) -> ChunksExact<'_, T>1.31.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks.

See chunks for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and rchunks_exact for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples

let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.chunks_exact(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l', 'o']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'e']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
assert_eq!(iter.remainder(), &['m']);

pub fn chunks_exact_mut(&mut self, chunk_size: usize) -> ChunksExactMut<'_, T>1.31.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are mutable slices, and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the into_remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks_mut.

See chunks_mut for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and rchunks_exact_mut for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples

let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.chunks_exact_mut(2) {
    for elem in chunk.iter_mut() {
        *elem += count;
    }
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[1, 1, 2, 2, 0]);

pub unsafe fn as_chunks_unchecked<const N: usize>(&self) -> &[[T; N]]

Notable traits for &'_ [u8]

impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, assuming that there’s no remainder.

Safety

This may only be called when

  • The slice splits exactly into N-element chunks (aka self.len() % N == 0).
  • N != 0.

Examples

#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let slice: &[char] = &['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm', '!'];
let chunks: &[[char; 1]] =
    // SAFETY: 1-element chunks never have remainder
    unsafe { slice.as_chunks_unchecked() };
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['l'], ['o'], ['r'], ['e'], ['m'], ['!']]);
let chunks: &[[char; 3]] =
    // SAFETY: The slice length (6) is a multiple of 3
    unsafe { slice.as_chunks_unchecked() };
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['l', 'o', 'r'], ['e', 'm', '!']]);

// These would be unsound:
// let chunks: &[[_; 5]] = slice.as_chunks_unchecked() // The slice length is not a multiple of 5
// let chunks: &[[_; 0]] = slice.as_chunks_unchecked() // Zero-length chunks are never allowed

pub fn as_chunks<const N: usize>(&self) -> (&[[T; N]], &[T])[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, starting at the beginning of the slice, and a remainder slice with length strictly less than N.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples

#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let (chunks, remainder) = slice.as_chunks();
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['l', 'o'], ['r', 'e']]);
assert_eq!(remainder, &['m']);

pub fn as_rchunks<const N: usize>(&self) -> (&[T], &[[T; N]])[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, starting at the end of the slice, and a remainder slice with length strictly less than N.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples

#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let (remainder, chunks) = slice.as_rchunks();
assert_eq!(remainder, &['l']);
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['o', 'r'], ['e', 'm']]);

pub fn array_chunks<const N: usize>(&self) -> ArrayChunks<'_, T, N>[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (array_chunks)

Returns an iterator over N elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are array references and do not overlap. If N does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to N-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the remainder function of the iterator.

This method is the const generic equivalent of chunks_exact.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples

#![feature(array_chunks)]
let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.array_chunks();
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l', 'o']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'e']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
assert_eq!(iter.remainder(), &['m']);

pub unsafe fn as_chunks_unchecked_mut<const N: usize>(
    &mut self
) -> &mut [[T; N]]

Notable traits for &'_ [u8]

impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, assuming that there’s no remainder.

Safety

This may only be called when

  • The slice splits exactly into N-element chunks (aka self.len() % N == 0).
  • N != 0.

Examples

#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let slice: &mut [char] = &mut ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm', '!'];
let chunks: &mut [[char; 1]] =
    // SAFETY: 1-element chunks never have remainder
    unsafe { slice.as_chunks_unchecked_mut() };
chunks[0] = ['L'];
assert_eq!(chunks, &[['L'], ['o'], ['r'], ['e'], ['m'], ['!']]);
let chunks: &mut [[char; 3]] =
    // SAFETY: The slice length (6) is a multiple of 3
    unsafe { slice.as_chunks_unchecked_mut() };
chunks[1] = ['a', 'x', '?'];
assert_eq!(slice, &['L', 'o', 'r', 'a', 'x', '?']);

// These would be unsound:
// let chunks: &[[_; 5]] = slice.as_chunks_unchecked_mut() // The slice length is not a multiple of 5
// let chunks: &[[_; 0]] = slice.as_chunks_unchecked_mut() // Zero-length chunks are never allowed

pub fn as_chunks_mut<const N: usize>(&mut self) -> (&mut [[T; N]], &mut [T])[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, starting at the beginning of the slice, and a remainder slice with length strictly less than N.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples

#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

let (chunks, remainder) = v.as_chunks_mut();
remainder[0] = 9;
for chunk in chunks {
    *chunk = [count; 2];
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[1, 1, 2, 2, 9]);

pub fn as_rchunks_mut<const N: usize>(&mut self) -> (&mut [T], &mut [[T; N]])[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_as_chunks)

Splits the slice into a slice of N-element arrays, starting at the end of the slice, and a remainder slice with length strictly less than N.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples

#![feature(slice_as_chunks)]
let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

let (remainder, chunks) = v.as_rchunks_mut();
remainder[0] = 9;
for chunk in chunks {
    *chunk = [count; 2];
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[9, 1, 1, 2, 2]);

pub fn array_chunks_mut<const N: usize>(&mut self) -> ArrayChunksMut<'_, T, N>[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (array_chunks)

Returns an iterator over N elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are mutable array references and do not overlap. If N does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to N-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the into_remainder function of the iterator.

This method is the const generic equivalent of chunks_exact_mut.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples

#![feature(array_chunks)]
let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.array_chunks_mut() {
    *chunk = [count; 2];
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[1, 1, 2, 2, 0]);

pub fn array_windows<const N: usize>(&self) -> ArrayWindows<'_, T, N>[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (array_windows)

Returns an iterator over overlapping windows of N elements of a slice, starting at the beginning of the slice.

This is the const generic equivalent of windows.

If N is greater than the size of the slice, it will return no windows.

Panics

Panics if N is 0. This check will most probably get changed to a compile time error before this method gets stabilized.

Examples

#![feature(array_windows)]
let slice = [0, 1, 2, 3];
let mut iter = slice.array_windows();
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[0, 1]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[1, 2]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[2, 3]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

pub fn rchunks(&self, chunk_size: usize) -> RChunks<'_, T>1.31.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See rchunks_exact for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and chunks for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples

let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.rchunks(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['e', 'm']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['o', 'r']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

pub fn rchunks_mut(&mut self, chunk_size: usize) -> RChunksMut<'_, T>1.31.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are mutable slices, and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See rchunks_exact_mut for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and chunks_mut for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples

let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.rchunks_mut(2) {
    for elem in chunk.iter_mut() {
        *elem += count;
    }
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[3, 2, 2, 1, 1]);

pub fn rchunks_exact(&self, chunk_size: usize) -> RChunksExact<'_, T>1.31.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks.

See rchunks for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and chunks_exact for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples

let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.rchunks_exact(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['e', 'm']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['o', 'r']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
assert_eq!(iter.remainder(), &['l']);

pub fn rchunks_exact_mut(&mut self, chunk_size: usize) -> RChunksExactMut<'_, T>1.31.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are mutable slices, and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the into_remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks_mut.

See rchunks_mut for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and chunks_exact_mut for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

Examples

let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.rchunks_exact_mut(2) {
    for elem in chunk.iter_mut() {
        *elem += count;
    }
    count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[0, 2, 2, 1, 1]);

pub fn group_by<F>(&self, pred: F) -> GroupBy<'_, T, F> where
    F: FnMut(&T, &T) -> bool
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_group_by)

Returns an iterator over the slice producing non-overlapping runs of elements using the predicate to separate them.

The predicate is called on two elements following themselves, it means the predicate is called on slice[0] and slice[1] then on slice[1] and slice[2] and so on.

Examples

#![feature(slice_group_by)]

let slice = &[1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2];

let mut iter = slice.group_by(|a, b| a == b);

assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[1, 1, 1][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[3, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[2, 2, 2][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);

This method can be used to extract the sorted subslices:

#![feature(slice_group_by)]

let slice = &[1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 3, 4];

let mut iter = slice.group_by(|a, b| a <= b);

assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[1, 1, 2, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[2, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&[2, 3, 4][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);

pub fn group_by_mut<F>(&mut self, pred: F) -> GroupByMut<'_, T, F> where
    F: FnMut(&T, &T) -> bool
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_group_by)

Returns an iterator over the slice producing non-overlapping mutable runs of elements using the predicate to separate them.

The predicate is called on two elements following themselves, it means the predicate is called on slice[0] and slice[1] then on slice[1] and slice[2] and so on.

Examples

#![feature(slice_group_by)]

let slice = &mut [1, 1, 1, 3, 3, 2, 2, 2];

let mut iter = slice.group_by_mut(|a, b| a == b);

assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&mut [1, 1, 1][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&mut [3, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&mut [2, 2, 2][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);

This method can be used to extract the sorted subslices:

#![feature(slice_group_by)]

let slice = &mut [1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 3, 2, 3, 4];

let mut iter = slice.group_by_mut(|a, b| a <= b);

assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&mut [1, 1, 2, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&mut [2, 3][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), Some(&mut [2, 3, 4][..]));
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);

pub fn split_at(&self, mid: usize) -> (&[T], &[T])1.0.0[src]

Divides one slice into two at an index.

The first will contain all indices from [0, mid) (excluding the index mid itself) and the second will contain all indices from [mid, len) (excluding the index len itself).

Panics

Panics if mid > len.

Examples

let v = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];

{
   let (left, right) = v.split_at(0);
   assert_eq!(left, []);
   assert_eq!(right, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
}

{
    let (left, right) = v.split_at(2);
    assert_eq!(left, [1, 2]);
    assert_eq!(right, [3, 4, 5, 6]);
}

{
    let (left, right) = v.split_at(6);
    assert_eq!(left, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
    assert_eq!(right, []);
}

pub fn split_at_mut(&mut self, mid: usize) -> (&mut [T], &mut [T])1.0.0[src]

Divides one mutable slice into two at an index.

The first will contain all indices from [0, mid) (excluding the index mid itself) and the second will contain all indices from [mid, len) (excluding the index len itself).

Panics

Panics if mid > len.

Examples

let mut v = [1, 0, 3, 0, 5, 6];
let (left, right) = v.split_at_mut(2);
assert_eq!(left, [1, 0]);
assert_eq!(right, [3, 0, 5, 6]);
left[1] = 2;
right[1] = 4;
assert_eq!(v, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);

pub fn split<F>(&self, pred: F) -> Split<'_, T, F> where
    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool
1.0.0[src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

Examples

let slice = [10, 40, 33, 20];
let mut iter = slice.split(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[20]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

If the first element is matched, an empty slice will be the first item returned by the iterator. Similarly, if the last element in the slice is matched, an empty slice will be the last item returned by the iterator:

let slice = [10, 40, 33];
let mut iter = slice.split(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

If two matched elements are directly adjacent, an empty slice will be present between them:

let slice = [10, 6, 33, 20];
let mut iter = slice.split(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[20]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

pub fn split_mut<F>(&mut self, pred: F) -> SplitMut<'_, T, F> where
    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool
1.0.0[src]

Returns an iterator over mutable subslices separated by elements that match pred. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

Examples

let mut v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.split_mut(|num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    group[0] = 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, [1, 40, 30, 1, 60, 1]);

pub fn split_inclusive<F>(&self, pred: F) -> SplitInclusive<'_, T, F> where
    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool
1.51.0[src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred. The matched element is contained in the end of the previous subslice as a terminator.

Examples

let slice = [10, 40, 33, 20];
let mut iter = slice.split_inclusive(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40, 33]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[20]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

If the last element of the slice is matched, that element will be considered the terminator of the preceding slice. That slice will be the last item returned by the iterator.

let slice = [3, 10, 40, 33];
let mut iter = slice.split_inclusive(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[3]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40, 33]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

pub fn split_inclusive_mut<F>(&mut self, pred: F) -> SplitInclusiveMut<'_, T, F> where
    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool
1.51.0[src]

Returns an iterator over mutable subslices separated by elements that match pred. The matched element is contained in the previous subslice as a terminator.

Examples

let mut v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.split_inclusive_mut(|num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    let terminator_idx = group.len()-1;
    group[terminator_idx] = 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, [10, 40, 1, 20, 1, 1]);

pub fn rsplit<F>(&self, pred: F) -> RSplit<'_, T, F> where
    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool
1.27.0[src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred, starting at the end of the slice and working backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

Examples

let slice = [11, 22, 33, 0, 44, 55];
let mut iter = slice.rsplit(|num| *num == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[44, 55]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[11, 22, 33]);
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);

As with split(), if the first or last element is matched, an empty slice will be the first (or last) item returned by the iterator.

let v = &[0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8];
let mut it = v.rsplit(|n| *n % 2 == 0);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[3, 5]);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[1, 1]);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert_eq!(it.next(), None);

pub fn rsplit_mut<F>(&mut self, pred: F) -> RSplitMut<'_, T, F> where
    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool
1.27.0[src]

Returns an iterator over mutable subslices separated by elements that match pred, starting at the end of the slice and working backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

Examples

let mut v = [100, 400, 300, 200, 600, 500];

let mut count = 0;
for group in v.rsplit_mut(|num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    count += 1;
    group[0] = count;
}
assert_eq!(v, [3, 400, 300, 2, 600, 1]);

pub fn splitn<F>(&self, n: usize, pred: F) -> SplitN<'_, T, F> where
    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool
1.0.0[src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred, limited to returning at most n items. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

Examples

Print the slice split once by numbers divisible by 3 (i.e., [10, 40], [20, 60, 50]):

let v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.splitn(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    println!("{:?}", group);
}

pub fn splitn_mut<F>(&mut self, n: usize, pred: F) -> SplitNMut<'_, T, F> where
    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool
1.0.0[src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred, limited to returning at most n items. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

Examples

let mut v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.splitn_mut(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    group[0] = 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, [1, 40, 30, 1, 60, 50]);

pub fn rsplitn<F>(&self, n: usize, pred: F) -> RSplitN<'_, T, F> where
    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool
1.0.0[src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred limited to returning at most n items. This starts at the end of the slice and works backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

Examples

Print the slice split once, starting from the end, by numbers divisible by 3 (i.e., [50], [10, 40, 30, 20]):

let v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.rsplitn(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    println!("{:?}", group);
}

pub fn rsplitn_mut<F>(&mut self, n: usize, pred: F) -> RSplitNMut<'_, T, F> where
    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool
1.0.0[src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred limited to returning at most n items. This starts at the end of the slice and works backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

Examples

let mut s = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in s.rsplitn_mut(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
    group[0] = 1;
}
assert_eq!(s, [1, 40, 30, 20, 60, 1]);

pub fn contains(&self, x: &T) -> bool where
    T: PartialEq<T>, 
1.0.0[src]

Returns true if the slice contains an element with the given value.

Examples

let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.contains(&30));
assert!(!v.contains(&50));

If you do not have an &T, but just an &U such that T: Borrow<U> (e.g. String: Borrow<str>), you can use iter().any:

let v = [String::from("hello"), String::from("world")]; // slice of `String`
assert!(v.iter().any(|e| e == "hello")); // search with `&str`
assert!(!v.iter().any(|e| e == "hi"));

pub fn starts_with(&self, needle: &[T]) -> bool where
    T: PartialEq<T>, 
1.0.0[src]

Returns true if needle is a prefix of the slice.

Examples

let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.starts_with(&[10]));
assert!(v.starts_with(&[10, 40]));
assert!(!v.starts_with(&[50]));
assert!(!v.starts_with(&[10, 50]));

Always returns true if needle is an empty slice:

let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.starts_with(&[]));
let v: &[u8] = &[];
assert!(v.starts_with(&[]));

pub fn ends_with(&self, needle: &[T]) -> bool where
    T: PartialEq<T>, 
1.0.0[src]

Returns true if needle is a suffix of the slice.

Examples

let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.ends_with(&[30]));
assert!(v.ends_with(&[40, 30]));
assert!(!v.ends_with(&[50]));
assert!(!v.ends_with(&[50, 30]));

Always returns true if needle is an empty slice:

let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.ends_with(&[]));
let v: &[u8] = &[];
assert!(v.ends_with(&[]));

#[must_use = "returns the subslice without modifying the original"]pub fn strip_prefix<P>(&self, prefix: &P) -> Option<&[T]> where
    T: PartialEq<T>,
    P: SlicePattern<Item = T> + ?Sized
1.51.0[src]

Returns a subslice with the prefix removed.

If the slice starts with prefix, returns the subslice after the prefix, wrapped in Some. If prefix is empty, simply returns the original slice.

If the slice does not start with prefix, returns None.

Examples

let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[10]), Some(&[40, 30][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[10, 40]), Some(&[30][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[50]), None);
assert_eq!(v.strip_prefix(&[10, 50]), None);

let prefix : &str = "he";
assert_eq!(b"hello".strip_prefix(prefix.as_bytes()),
           Some(b"llo".as_ref()));

#[must_use = "returns the subslice without modifying the original"]pub fn strip_suffix<P>(&self, suffix: &P) -> Option<&[T]> where
    T: PartialEq<T>,
    P: SlicePattern<Item = T> + ?Sized
1.51.0[src]

Returns a subslice with the suffix removed.

If the slice ends with suffix, returns the subslice before the suffix, wrapped in Some. If suffix is empty, simply returns the original slice.

If the slice does not end with suffix, returns None.

Examples

let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[30]), Some(&[10, 40][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[40, 30]), Some(&[10][..]));
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[50]), None);
assert_eq!(v.strip_suffix(&[50, 30]), None);

Binary searches this sorted slice for a given element.

If the value is found then Result::Ok is returned, containing the index of the matching element. If there are multiple matches, then any one of the matches could be returned. If the value is not found then Result::Err is returned, containing the index where a matching element could be inserted while maintaining sorted order.

See also binary_search_by, binary_search_by_key, and partition_point.

Examples

Looks up a series of four elements. The first is found, with a uniquely determined position; the second and third are not found; the fourth could match any position in [1, 4].

let s = [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];

assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&13),  Ok(9));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&4),   Err(7));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&100), Err(13));
let r = s.binary_search(&1);
assert!(match r { Ok(1..=4) => true, _ => false, });

If you want to insert an item to a sorted vector, while maintaining sort order:

let mut s = vec![0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];
let num = 42;
let idx = s.binary_search(&num).unwrap_or_else(|x| x);
s.insert(idx, num);
assert_eq!(s, [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 42, 55]);

pub fn binary_search_by<'a, F>(&'a self, f: F) -> Result<usize, usize> where
    F: FnMut(&'a T) -> Ordering
1.0.0[src]

Binary searches this sorted slice with a comparator function.

The comparator function should implement an order consistent with the sort order of the underlying slice, returning an order code that indicates whether its argument is Less, Equal or Greater the desired target.

If the value is found then Result::Ok is returned, containing the index of the matching element. If there are multiple matches, then any one of the matches could be returned. If the value is not found then Result::Err is returned, containing the index where a matching element could be inserted while maintaining sorted order.

See also binary_search, binary_search_by_key, and partition_point.

Examples

Looks up a series of four elements. The first is found, with a uniquely determined position; the second and third are not found; the fourth could match any position in [1, 4].

let s = [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];

let seek = 13;
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek)), Ok(9));
let seek = 4;
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek)), Err(7));
let seek = 100;
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek)), Err(13));
let seek = 1;
let r = s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek));
assert!(match r { Ok(1..=4) => true, _ => false, });

pub fn binary_search_by_key<'a, B, F>(
    &'a self,
    b: &B,
    f: F
) -> Result<usize, usize> where
    B: Ord,
    F: FnMut(&'a T) -> B, 
1.10.0[src]

Binary searches this sorted slice with a key extraction function.

Assumes that the slice is sorted by the key, for instance with sort_by_key using the same key extraction function.

If the value is found then Result::Ok is returned, containing the index of the matching element. If there are multiple matches, then any one of the matches could be returned. If the value is not found then Result::Err is returned, containing the index where a matching element could be inserted while maintaining sorted order.

See also binary_search, binary_search_by, and partition_point.

Examples

Looks up a series of four elements in a slice of pairs sorted by their second elements. The first is found, with a uniquely determined position; the second and third are not found; the fourth could match any position in [1, 4].

let s = [(0, 0), (2, 1), (4, 1), (5, 1), (3, 1),
         (1, 2), (2, 3), (4, 5), (5, 8), (3, 13),
         (1, 21), (2, 34), (4, 55)];

assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by_key(&13, |&(a, b)| b),  Ok(9));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by_key(&4, |&(a, b)| b),   Err(7));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by_key(&100, |&(a, b)| b), Err(13));
let r = s.binary_search_by_key(&1, |&(a, b)| b);
assert!(match r { Ok(1..=4) => true, _ => false, });

pub fn sort_unstable(&mut self) where
    T: Ord
1.20.0[src]

Sorts the slice, but may not preserve the order of equal elements.

This sort is unstable (i.e., may reorder equal elements), in-place (i.e., does not allocate), and O(n * log(n)) worst-case.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on pattern-defeating quicksort by Orson Peters, which combines the fast average case of randomized quicksort with the fast worst case of heapsort, while achieving linear time on slices with certain patterns. It uses some randomization to avoid degenerate cases, but with a fixed seed to always provide deterministic behavior.

It is typically faster than stable sorting, except in a few special cases, e.g., when the slice consists of several concatenated sorted sequences.

Examples

let mut v = [-5, 4, 1, -3, 2];

v.sort_unstable();
assert!(v == [-5, -3, 1, 2, 4]);

pub fn sort_unstable_by<F>(&mut self, compare: F) where
    F: FnMut(&T, &T) -> Ordering
1.20.0[src]

Sorts the slice with a comparator function, but may not preserve the order of equal elements.

This sort is unstable (i.e., may reorder equal elements), in-place (i.e., does not allocate), and O(n * log(n)) worst-case.

The comparator function must define a total ordering for the elements in the slice. If the ordering is not total, the order of the elements is unspecified. An order is a total order if it is (for all a, b and c):

  • total and antisymmetric: exactly one of a < b, a == b or a > b is true, and
  • transitive, a < b and b < c implies a < c. The same must hold for both == and >.

For example, while f64 doesn’t implement Ord because NaN != NaN, we can use partial_cmp as our sort function when we know the slice doesn’t contain a NaN.

let mut floats = [5f64, 4.0, 1.0, 3.0, 2.0];
floats.sort_unstable_by(|a, b| a.partial_cmp(b).unwrap());
assert_eq!(floats, [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on pattern-defeating quicksort by Orson Peters, which combines the fast average case of randomized quicksort with the fast worst case of heapsort, while achieving linear time on slices with certain patterns. It uses some randomization to avoid degenerate cases, but with a fixed seed to always provide deterministic behavior.

It is typically faster than stable sorting, except in a few special cases, e.g., when the slice consists of several concatenated sorted sequences.

Examples

let mut v = [5, 4, 1, 3, 2];
v.sort_unstable_by(|a, b| a.cmp(b));
assert!(v == [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);

// reverse sorting
v.sort_unstable_by(|a, b| b.cmp(a));
assert!(v == [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]);

pub fn sort_unstable_by_key<K, F>(&mut self, f: F) where
    K: Ord,
    F: FnMut(&T) -> K, 
1.20.0[src]

Sorts the slice with a key extraction function, but may not preserve the order of equal elements.

This sort is unstable (i.e., may reorder equal elements), in-place (i.e., does not allocate), and O(m * n * log(n)) worst-case, where the key function is O(m).

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on pattern-defeating quicksort by Orson Peters, which combines the fast average case of randomized quicksort with the fast worst case of heapsort, while achieving linear time on slices with certain patterns. It uses some randomization to avoid degenerate cases, but with a fixed seed to always provide deterministic behavior.

Due to its key calling strategy, sort_unstable_by_key is likely to be slower than sort_by_cached_key in cases where the key function is expensive.

Examples

let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

v.sort_unstable_by_key(|k| k.abs());
assert!(v == [1, 2, -3, 4, -5]);

pub fn partition_at_index(
    &mut self,
    index: usize
) -> (&mut [T], &mut T, &mut [T]) where
    T: Ord
[src]

👎 Deprecated since 1.49.0:

use the select_nth_unstable() instead

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_at_index)

Reorder the slice such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

pub fn partition_at_index_by<F>(
    &mut self,
    index: usize,
    compare: F
) -> (&mut [T], &mut T, &mut [T]) where
    F: FnMut(&T, &T) -> Ordering
[src]

👎 Deprecated since 1.49.0:

use select_nth_unstable_by() instead

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_at_index)

Reorder the slice with a comparator function such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

pub fn partition_at_index_by_key<K, F>(
    &mut self,
    index: usize,
    f: F
) -> (&mut [T], &mut T, &mut [T]) where
    K: Ord,
    F: FnMut(&T) -> K, 
[src]

👎 Deprecated since 1.49.0:

use the select_nth_unstable_by_key() instead

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_at_index)

Reorder the slice with a key extraction function such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

pub fn select_nth_unstable(
    &mut self,
    index: usize
) -> (&mut [T], &mut T, &mut [T]) where
    T: Ord
1.49.0[src]

Reorder the slice such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

This reordering has the additional property that any value at position i < index will be less than or equal to any value at a position j > index. Additionally, this reordering is unstable (i.e. any number of equal elements may end up at position index), in-place (i.e. does not allocate), and O(n) worst-case. This function is also/ known as “kth element” in other libraries. It returns a triplet of the following values: all elements less than the one at the given index, the value at the given index, and all elements greater than the one at the given index.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on the quickselect portion of the same quicksort algorithm used for sort_unstable.

Panics

Panics when index >= len(), meaning it always panics on empty slices.

Examples

let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

// Find the median
v.select_nth_unstable(2);

// We are only guaranteed the slice will be one of the following, based on the way we sort
// about the specified index.
assert!(v == [-3, -5, 1, 2, 4] ||
        v == [-5, -3, 1, 2, 4] ||
        v == [-3, -5, 1, 4, 2] ||
        v == [-5, -3, 1, 4, 2]);

pub fn select_nth_unstable_by<F>(
    &mut self,
    index: usize,
    compare: F
) -> (&mut [T], &mut T, &mut [T]) where
    F: FnMut(&T, &T) -> Ordering
1.49.0[src]

Reorder the slice with a comparator function such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

This reordering has the additional property that any value at position i < index will be less than or equal to any value at a position j > index using the comparator function. Additionally, this reordering is unstable (i.e. any number of equal elements may end up at position index), in-place (i.e. does not allocate), and O(n) worst-case. This function is also known as “kth element” in other libraries. It returns a triplet of the following values: all elements less than the one at the given index, the value at the given index, and all elements greater than the one at the given index, using the provided comparator function.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on the quickselect portion of the same quicksort algorithm used for sort_unstable.

Panics

Panics when index >= len(), meaning it always panics on empty slices.

Examples

let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

// Find the median as if the slice were sorted in descending order.
v.select_nth_unstable_by(2, |a, b| b.cmp(a));

// We are only guaranteed the slice will be one of the following, based on the way we sort
// about the specified index.
assert!(v == [2, 4, 1, -5, -3] ||
        v == [2, 4, 1, -3, -5] ||
        v == [4, 2, 1, -5, -3] ||
        v == [4, 2, 1, -3, -5]);

pub fn select_nth_unstable_by_key<K, F>(
    &mut self,
    index: usize,
    f: F
) -> (&mut [T], &mut T, &mut [T]) where
    K: Ord,
    F: FnMut(&T) -> K, 
1.49.0[src]

Reorder the slice with a key extraction function such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

This reordering has the additional property that any value at position i < index will be less than or equal to any value at a position j > index using the key extraction function. Additionally, this reordering is unstable (i.e. any number of equal elements may end up at position index), in-place (i.e. does not allocate), and O(n) worst-case. This function is also known as “kth element” in other libraries. It returns a triplet of the following values: all elements less than the one at the given index, the value at the given index, and all elements greater than the one at the given index, using the provided key extraction function.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on the quickselect portion of the same quicksort algorithm used for sort_unstable.

Panics

Panics when index >= len(), meaning it always panics on empty slices.

Examples

let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

// Return the median as if the array were sorted according to absolute value.
v.select_nth_unstable_by_key(2, |a| a.abs());

// We are only guaranteed the slice will be one of the following, based on the way we sort
// about the specified index.
assert!(v == [1, 2, -3, 4, -5] ||
        v == [1, 2, -3, -5, 4] ||
        v == [2, 1, -3, 4, -5] ||
        v == [2, 1, -3, -5, 4]);

pub fn partition_dedup(&mut self) -> (&mut [T], &mut [T]) where
    T: PartialEq<T>, 
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_dedup)

Moves all consecutive repeated elements to the end of the slice according to the PartialEq trait implementation.

Returns two slices. The first contains no consecutive repeated elements. The second contains all the duplicates in no specified order.

If the slice is sorted, the first returned slice contains no duplicates.

Examples

#![feature(slice_partition_dedup)]

let mut slice = [1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 1, 1];

let (dedup, duplicates) = slice.partition_dedup();

assert_eq!(dedup, [1, 2, 3, 2, 1]);
assert_eq!(duplicates, [2, 3, 1]);

pub fn partition_dedup_by<F>(&mut self, same_bucket: F) -> (&mut [T], &mut [T]) where
    F: FnMut(&mut T, &mut T) -> bool
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_dedup)

Moves all but the first of consecutive elements to the end of the slice satisfying a given equality relation.

Returns two slices. The first contains no consecutive repeated elements. The second contains all the duplicates in no specified order.

The same_bucket function is passed references to two elements from the slice and must determine if the elements compare equal. The elements are passed in opposite order from their order in the slice, so if same_bucket(a, b) returns true, a is moved at the end of the slice.

If the slice is sorted, the first returned slice contains no duplicates.

Examples

#![feature(slice_partition_dedup)]

let mut slice = ["foo", "Foo", "BAZ", "Bar", "bar", "baz", "BAZ"];

let (dedup, duplicates) = slice.partition_dedup_by(|a, b| a.eq_ignore_ascii_case(b));

assert_eq!(dedup, ["foo", "BAZ", "Bar", "baz"]);
assert_eq!(duplicates, ["bar", "Foo", "BAZ"]);

pub fn partition_dedup_by_key<K, F>(&mut self, key: F) -> (&mut [T], &mut [T]) where
    K: PartialEq<K>,
    F: FnMut(&mut T) -> K, 
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_dedup)

Moves all but the first of consecutive elements to the end of the slice that resolve to the same key.

Returns two slices. The first contains no consecutive repeated elements. The second contains all the duplicates in no specified order.

If the slice is sorted, the first returned slice contains no duplicates.

Examples

#![feature(slice_partition_dedup)]

let mut slice = [10, 20, 21, 30, 30, 20, 11, 13];

let (dedup, duplicates) = slice.partition_dedup_by_key(|i| *i / 10);

assert_eq!(dedup, [10, 20, 30, 20, 11]);
assert_eq!(duplicates, [21, 30, 13]);

pub fn rotate_left(&mut self, mid: usize)1.26.0[src]

Rotates the slice in-place such that the first mid elements of the slice move to the end while the last self.len() - mid elements move to the front. After calling rotate_left, the element previously at index mid will become the first element in the slice.

Panics

This function will panic if mid is greater than the length of the slice. Note that mid == self.len() does not panic and is a no-op rotation.

Complexity

Takes linear (in self.len()) time.

Examples

let mut a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'];
a.rotate_left(2);
assert_eq!(a, ['c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'a', 'b']);

Rotating a subslice:

let mut a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'];
a[1..5].rotate_left(1);
assert_eq!(a, ['a', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'b', 'f']);

pub fn rotate_right(&mut self, k: usize)1.26.0[src]

Rotates the slice in-place such that the first self.len() - k elements of the slice move to the end while the last k elements move to the front. After calling rotate_right, the element previously at index self.len() - k will become the first element in the slice.

Panics

This function will panic if k is greater than the length of the slice. Note that k == self.len() does not panic and is a no-op rotation.

Complexity

Takes linear (in self.len()) time.

Examples

let mut a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'];
a.rotate_right(2);
assert_eq!(a, ['e', 'f', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd']);

Rotate a subslice:

let mut a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'];
a[1..5].rotate_right(1);
assert_eq!(a, ['a', 'e', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'f']);

pub fn fill(&mut self, value: T) where
    T: Clone
1.50.0[src]

Fills self with elements by cloning value.

Examples

let mut buf = vec![0; 10];
buf.fill(1);
assert_eq!(buf, vec![1; 10]);

pub fn fill_with<F>(&mut self, f: F) where
    F: FnMut() -> T, 
1.51.0[src]

Fills self with elements returned by calling a closure repeatedly.

This method uses a closure to create new values. If you’d rather Clone a given value, use fill. If you want to use the Default trait to generate values, you can pass Default::default as the argument.

Examples

let mut buf = vec![1; 10];
buf.fill_with(Default::default);
assert_eq!(buf, vec![0; 10]);

pub fn clone_from_slice(&mut self, src: &[T]) where
    T: Clone
1.7.0[src]

Copies the elements from src into self.

The length of src must be the same as self.

If T implements Copy, it can be more performant to use copy_from_slice.

Panics

This function will panic if the two slices have different lengths.

Examples

Cloning two elements from a slice into another:

let src = [1, 2, 3, 4];
let mut dst = [0, 0];

// Because the slices have to be the same length,
// we slice the source slice from four elements
// to two. It will panic if we don't do this.
dst.clone_from_slice(&src[2..]);

assert_eq!(src, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(dst, [3, 4]);

Rust enforces that there can only be one mutable reference with no immutable references to a particular piece of data in a particular scope. Because of this, attempting to use clone_from_slice on a single slice will result in a compile failure:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

slice[..2].clone_from_slice(&slice[3..]); // compile fail!

To work around this, we can use split_at_mut to create two distinct sub-slices from a slice:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

{
    let (left, right) = slice.split_at_mut(2);
    left.clone_from_slice(&right[1..]);
}

assert_eq!(slice, [4, 5, 3, 4, 5]);

pub fn copy_from_slice(&mut self, src: &[T]) where
    T: Copy
1.9.0[src]

Copies all elements from src into self, using a memcpy.

The length of src must be the same as self.

If T does not implement Copy, use clone_from_slice.

Panics

This function will panic if the two slices have different lengths.

Examples

Copying two elements from a slice into another:

let src = [1, 2, 3, 4];
let mut dst = [0, 0];

// Because the slices have to be the same length,
// we slice the source slice from four elements
// to two. It will panic if we don't do this.
dst.copy_from_slice(&src[2..]);

assert_eq!(src, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(dst, [3, 4]);

Rust enforces that there can only be one mutable reference with no immutable references to a particular piece of data in a particular scope. Because of this, attempting to use copy_from_slice on a single slice will result in a compile failure:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

slice[..2].copy_from_slice(&slice[3..]); // compile fail!

To work around this, we can use split_at_mut to create two distinct sub-slices from a slice:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

{
    let (left, right) = slice.split_at_mut(2);
    left.copy_from_slice(&right[1..]);
}

assert_eq!(slice, [4, 5, 3, 4, 5]);

pub fn copy_within<R>(&mut self, src: R, dest: usize) where
    T: Copy,
    R: RangeBounds<usize>, 
1.37.0[src]

Copies elements from one part of the slice to another part of itself, using a memmove.

src is the range within self to copy from. dest is the starting index of the range within self to copy to, which will have the same length as src. The two ranges may overlap. The ends of the two ranges must be less than or equal to self.len().

Panics

This function will panic if either range exceeds the end of the slice, or if the end of src is before the start.

Examples

Copying four bytes within a slice:

let mut bytes = *b"Hello, World!";

bytes.copy_within(1..5, 8);

assert_eq!(&bytes, b"Hello, Wello!");

pub fn swap_with_slice(&mut self, other: &mut [T])1.27.0[src]

Swaps all elements in self with those in other.

The length of other must be the same as self.

Panics

This function will panic if the two slices have different lengths.

Example

Swapping two elements across slices:

let mut slice1 = [0, 0];
let mut slice2 = [1, 2, 3, 4];

slice1.swap_with_slice(&mut slice2[2..]);

assert_eq!(slice1, [3, 4]);
assert_eq!(slice2, [1, 2, 0, 0]);

Rust enforces that there can only be one mutable reference to a particular piece of data in a particular scope. Because of this, attempting to use swap_with_slice on a single slice will result in a compile failure:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
slice[..2].swap_with_slice(&mut slice[3..]); // compile fail!

To work around this, we can use split_at_mut to create two distinct mutable sub-slices from a slice:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

{
    let (left, right) = slice.split_at_mut(2);
    left.swap_with_slice(&mut right[1..]);
}

assert_eq!(slice, [4, 5, 3, 1, 2]);

pub unsafe fn align_to<U>(&self) -> (&[T], &[U], &[T])1.30.0[src]

Transmute the slice to a slice of another type, ensuring alignment of the types is maintained.

This method splits the slice into three distinct slices: prefix, correctly aligned middle slice of a new type, and the suffix slice. The method may make the middle slice the greatest length possible for a given type and input slice, but only your algorithm’s performance should depend on that, not its correctness. It is permissible for all of the input data to be returned as the prefix or suffix slice.

This method has no purpose when either input element T or output element U are zero-sized and will return the original slice without splitting anything.

Safety

This method is essentially a transmute with respect to the elements in the returned middle slice, so all the usual caveats pertaining to transmute::<T, U> also apply here.

Examples

Basic usage:

unsafe {
    let bytes: [u8; 7] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7];
    let (prefix, shorts, suffix) = bytes.align_to::<u16>();
    // less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(prefix);
    // more_efficient_algorithm_for_aligned_shorts(shorts);
    // less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(suffix);
}

pub unsafe fn align_to_mut<U>(&mut self) -> (&mut [T], &mut [U], &mut [T])1.30.0[src]

Transmute the slice to a slice of another type, ensuring alignment of the types is maintained.

This method splits the slice into three distinct slices: prefix, correctly aligned middle slice of a new type, and the suffix slice. The method may make the middle slice the greatest length possible for a given type and input slice, but only your algorithm’s performance should depend on that, not its correctness. It is permissible for all of the input data to be returned as the prefix or suffix slice.

This method has no purpose when either input element T or output element U are zero-sized and will return the original slice without splitting anything.

Safety

This method is essentially a transmute with respect to the elements in the returned middle slice, so all the usual caveats pertaining to transmute::<T, U> also apply here.

Examples

Basic usage:

unsafe {
    let mut bytes: [u8; 7] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7];
    let (prefix, shorts, suffix) = bytes.align_to_mut::<u16>();
    // less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(prefix);
    // more_efficient_algorithm_for_aligned_shorts(shorts);
    // less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(suffix);
}

pub fn is_sorted(&self) -> bool where
    T: PartialOrd<T>, 
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)

new API

Checks if the elements of this slice are sorted.

That is, for each element a and its following element b, a <= b must hold. If the slice yields exactly zero or one element, true is returned.

Note that if Self::Item is only PartialOrd, but not Ord, the above definition implies that this function returns false if any two consecutive items are not comparable.

Examples

#![feature(is_sorted)]
let empty: [i32; 0] = [];

assert!([1, 2, 2, 9].is_sorted());
assert!(![1, 3, 2, 4].is_sorted());
assert!([0].is_sorted());
assert!(empty.is_sorted());
assert!(![0.0, 1.0, f32::NAN].is_sorted());

pub fn is_sorted_by<F>(&self, compare: F) -> bool where
    F: FnMut(&T, &T) -> Option<Ordering>, 
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)

new API

Checks if the elements of this slice are sorted using the given comparator function.

Instead of using PartialOrd::partial_cmp, this function uses the given compare function to determine the ordering of two elements. Apart from that, it’s equivalent to is_sorted; see its documentation for more information.

pub fn is_sorted_by_key<F, K>(&self, f: F) -> bool where
    K: PartialOrd<K>,
    F: FnMut(&T) -> K, 
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)

new API

Checks if the elements of this slice are sorted using the given key extraction function.

Instead of comparing the slice’s elements directly, this function compares the keys of the elements, as determined by f. Apart from that, it’s equivalent to is_sorted; see its documentation for more information.

Examples

#![feature(is_sorted)]

assert!(["c", "bb", "aaa"].is_sorted_by_key(|s| s.len()));
assert!(![-2i32, -1, 0, 3].is_sorted_by_key(|n| n.abs()));

pub fn partition_point<P>(&self, pred: P) -> usize where
    P: FnMut(&T) -> bool
1.52.0[src]

Returns the index of the partition point according to the given predicate (the index of the first element of the second partition).

The slice is assumed to be partitioned according to the given predicate. This means that all elements for which the predicate returns true are at the start of the slice and all elements for which the predicate returns false are at the end. For example, [7, 15, 3, 5, 4, 12, 6] is a partitioned under the predicate x % 2 != 0 (all odd numbers are at the start, all even at the end).

If this slice is not partitioned, the returned result is unspecified and meaningless, as this method performs a kind of binary search.

See also binary_search, binary_search_by, and binary_search_by_key.

Examples

let v = [1, 2, 3, 3, 5, 6, 7];
let i = v.partition_point(|&x| x < 5);

assert_eq!(i, 4);
assert!(v[..i].iter().all(|&x| x < 5));
assert!(v[i..].iter().all(|&x| !(x < 5)));

pub fn is_ascii(&self) -> bool1.23.0[src]

Checks if all bytes in this slice are within the ASCII range.

pub fn eq_ignore_ascii_case(&self, other: &[u8]) -> bool1.23.0[src]

Checks that two slices are an ASCII case-insensitive match.

Same as to_ascii_lowercase(a) == to_ascii_lowercase(b), but without allocating and copying temporaries.

pub fn make_ascii_uppercase(&mut self)1.23.0[src]

Converts this slice to its ASCII upper case equivalent in-place.

ASCII letters ‘a’ to ‘z’ are mapped to ‘A’ to ‘Z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To return a new uppercased value without modifying the existing one, use to_ascii_uppercase.

pub fn make_ascii_lowercase(&mut self)1.23.0[src]

Converts this slice to its ASCII lower case equivalent in-place.

ASCII letters ‘A’ to ‘Z’ are mapped to ‘a’ to ‘z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To return a new lowercased value without modifying the existing one, use to_ascii_lowercase.

pub fn escape_ascii(&self) -> EscapeAscii<'_>[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (inherent_ascii_escape)

Returns an iterator that produces an escaped version of this slice, treating it as an ASCII string.

Examples

#![feature(inherent_ascii_escape)]

let s = b"0\t\r\n'\"\\\x9d";
let escaped = s.escape_ascii().to_string();
assert_eq!(escaped, "0\\t\\r\\n\\'\\\"\\\\\\x9d");

pub fn sort(&mut self) where
    T: Ord
1.0.0[src]

Sorts the slice.

This sort is stable (i.e., does not reorder equal elements) and O(n * log(n)) worst-case.

When applicable, unstable sorting is preferred because it is generally faster than stable sorting and it doesn’t allocate auxiliary memory. See sort_unstable.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is an adaptive, iterative merge sort inspired by timsort. It is designed to be very fast in cases where the slice is nearly sorted, or consists of two or more sorted sequences concatenated one after another.

Also, it allocates temporary storage half the size of self, but for short slices a non-allocating insertion sort is used instead.

Examples

let mut v = [-5, 4, 1, -3, 2];

v.sort();
assert!(v == [-5, -3, 1, 2, 4]);

pub fn sort_by<F>(&mut self, compare: F) where
    F: FnMut(&T, &T) -> Ordering
1.0.0[src]

Sorts the slice with a comparator function.

This sort is stable (i.e., does not reorder equal elements) and O(n * log(n)) worst-case.

The comparator function must define a total ordering for the elements in the slice. If the ordering is not total, the order of the elements is unspecified. An order is a total order if it is (for all a, b and c):

  • total and antisymmetric: exactly one of a < b, a == b or a > b is true, and
  • transitive, a < b and b < c implies a < c. The same must hold for both == and >.

For example, while f64 doesn’t implement Ord because NaN != NaN, we can use partial_cmp as our sort function when we know the slice doesn’t contain a NaN.

let mut floats = [5f64, 4.0, 1.0, 3.0, 2.0];
floats.sort_by(|a, b| a.partial_cmp(b).unwrap());
assert_eq!(floats, [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);

When applicable, unstable sorting is preferred because it is generally faster than stable sorting and it doesn’t allocate auxiliary memory. See sort_unstable_by.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is an adaptive, iterative merge sort inspired by timsort. It is designed to be very fast in cases where the slice is nearly sorted, or consists of two or more sorted sequences concatenated one after another.

Also, it allocates temporary storage half the size of self, but for short slices a non-allocating insertion sort is used instead.

Examples

let mut v = [5, 4, 1, 3, 2];
v.sort_by(|a, b| a.cmp(b));
assert!(v == [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);

// reverse sorting
v.sort_by(|a, b| b.cmp(a));
assert!(v == [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]);

pub fn sort_by_key<K, F>(&mut self, f: F) where
    K: Ord,
    F: FnMut(&T) -> K, 
1.7.0[src]

Sorts the slice with a key extraction function.

This sort is stable (i.e., does not reorder equal elements) and O(m * n * log(n)) worst-case, where the key function is O(m).

For expensive key functions (e.g. functions that are not simple property accesses or basic operations), sort_by_cached_key is likely to be significantly faster, as it does not recompute element keys.

When applicable, unstable sorting is preferred because it is generally faster than stable sorting and it doesn’t allocate auxiliary memory. See sort_unstable_by_key.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is an adaptive, iterative merge sort inspired by timsort. It is designed to be very fast in cases where the slice is nearly sorted, or consists of two or more sorted sequences concatenated one after another.

Also, it allocates temporary storage half the size of self, but for short slices a non-allocating insertion sort is used instead.

Examples

let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

v.sort_by_key(|k| k.abs());
assert!(v == [1, 2, -3, 4, -5]);

pub fn sort_by_cached_key<K, F>(&mut self, f: F) where
    K: Ord,
    F: FnMut(&T) -> K, 
1.34.0[src]

Sorts the slice with a key extraction function.

During sorting, the key function is called only once per element.

This sort is stable (i.e., does not reorder equal elements) and O(m * n + n * log(n)) worst-case, where the key function is O(m).

For simple key functions (e.g., functions that are property accesses or basic operations), sort_by_key is likely to be faster.

Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on pattern-defeating quicksort by Orson Peters, which combines the fast average case of randomized quicksort with the fast worst case of heapsort, while achieving linear time on slices with certain patterns. It uses some randomization to avoid degenerate cases, but with a fixed seed to always provide deterministic behavior.

In the worst case, the algorithm allocates temporary storage in a Vec<(K, usize)> the length of the slice.

Examples

let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 32, -3, 2];

v.sort_by_cached_key(|k| k.to_string());
assert!(v == [-3, -5, 2, 32, 4]);

pub fn to_vec(&self) -> Vec<T, Global> where
    T: Clone
1.0.0[src]

Copies self into a new Vec.

Examples

let s = [10, 40, 30];
let x = s.to_vec();
// Here, `s` and `x` can be modified independently.

pub fn to_vec_in<A>(&self, alloc: A) -> Vec<T, A> where
    T: Clone,
    A: Allocator
[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (allocator_api)

Copies self into a new Vec with an allocator.

Examples

#![feature(allocator_api)]

use std::alloc::System;

let s = [10, 40, 30];
let x = s.to_vec_in(System);
// Here, `s` and `x` can be modified independently.

pub fn repeat(&self, n: usize) -> Vec<T, Global> where
    T: Copy
1.40.0[src]

Creates a vector by repeating a slice n times.

Panics

This function will panic if the capacity would overflow.

Examples

Basic usage:

assert_eq!([1, 2].repeat(3), vec![1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2]);

A panic upon overflow:

// this will panic at runtime
b"0123456789abcdef".repeat(usize::MAX);

pub fn concat<Item>(&self) -> <[T] as Concat<Item>>::Output

Notable traits for &'_ [u8]

impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]
where
    Item: ?Sized,
    [T]: Concat<Item>, 
1.0.0[src]

Flattens a slice of T into a single value Self::Output.

Examples

assert_eq!(["hello", "world"].concat(), "helloworld");
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].concat(), [1, 2, 3, 4]);

pub fn join<Separator>(
    &self,
    sep: Separator
) -> <[T] as Join<Separator>>::Output

Notable traits for &'_ [u8]

impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]
where
    [T]: Join<Separator>, 
1.3.0[src]

Flattens a slice of T into a single value Self::Output, placing a given separator between each.

Examples

assert_eq!(["hello", "world"].join(" "), "hello world");
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].join(&0), [1, 2, 0, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].join(&[0, 0][..]), [1, 2, 0, 0, 3, 4]);

pub fn connect<Separator>(
    &self,
    sep: Separator
) -> <[T] as Join<Separator>>::Output

Notable traits for &'_ [u8]

impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]
where
    [T]: Join<Separator>, 
1.0.0[src]

👎 Deprecated since 1.3.0:

renamed to join

Flattens a slice of T into a single value Self::Output, placing a given separator between each.

Examples

assert_eq!(["hello", "world"].connect(" "), "hello world");
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].connect(&0), [1, 2, 0, 3, 4]);

pub fn to_ascii_uppercase(&self) -> Vec<u8, Global>1.23.0[src]

Returns a vector containing a copy of this slice where each byte is mapped to its ASCII upper case equivalent.

ASCII letters ‘a’ to ‘z’ are mapped to ‘A’ to ‘Z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To uppercase the value in-place, use make_ascii_uppercase.

pub fn to_ascii_lowercase(&self) -> Vec<u8, Global>1.23.0[src]

Returns a vector containing a copy of this slice where each byte is mapped to its ASCII lower case equivalent.

ASCII letters ‘A’ to ‘Z’ are mapped to ‘a’ to ‘z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To lowercase the value in-place, use make_ascii_lowercase.

Trait Implementations

impl AsMut<[u8]> for String[src]

impl AsMut<Vec<u8, Global>> for String[src]

impl AsRef<[u8]> for String[src]

impl AsRef<Vec<u8, Global>> for String[src]

impl Borrow<[u8]> for String[src]

impl Borrow<Vec<u8, Global>> for String[src]

impl BorrowMut<[u8]> for String[src]

impl BorrowMut<Vec<u8, Global>> for String[src]

impl Clone for String[src]

impl Debug for String[src]

impl Default for String[src]

impl Deref for String[src]

type Target = [u8]

The resulting type after dereferencing.

impl DerefMut for String[src]

impl Eq for String[src]

impl<'a> Extend<&'a mut u8> for String[src]

impl<'a> Extend<&'a u8> for String[src]

impl Extend<u8> for String[src]

impl From<&'_ str> for String[src]

impl<'a> From<&'a [u8]> for String[src]

impl<'a> From<&'a String> for Chars<'a>[src]

impl<'a> From<&'a mut [u8]> for String[src]

impl<'a> From<Cow<'a, [u8]>> for String[src]

impl From<String> for String[src]

impl From<Vec<u8, Global>> for String[src]

impl<'a> FromIterator<&'a char> for String[src]

impl<'a> FromIterator<&'a mut char> for String[src]

impl<'a> FromIterator<&'a mut u8> for String[src]

impl<'a> FromIterator<&'a u8> for String[src]

impl FromIterator<char> for String[src]

impl FromIterator<u8> for String[src]

impl Hash for String[src]

impl<I: SliceIndex<[u8]>> Index<I> for String[src]

type Output = I::Output

The returned type after indexing.

impl<I: SliceIndex<[u8]>> IndexMut<I> for String[src]

impl IntoIterator for String[src]

type Item = u8

The type of the elements being iterated over.

type IntoIter = IntoIter

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

impl Ord for String[src]

impl PartialEq<&'_ [u8]> for String[src]

impl PartialEq<&'_ str> for String[src]

impl PartialEq<[u8]> for String[src]

impl PartialEq<String> for [u8][src]

impl PartialEq<String> for &[u8][src]

impl PartialEq<String> for String[src]

impl PartialEq<String> for String[src]

impl PartialEq<Vec<u8, Global>> for String[src]

impl PartialEq<str> for String[src]

impl PartialOrd<String> for String[src]

impl StructuralEq for String[src]

impl StructuralPartialEq for String[src]

Auto Trait Implementations

impl RefUnwindSafe for String

impl Send for String

impl Sync for String

impl Unpin for String

impl UnwindSafe for String

Blanket Implementations

impl<T> Any for T where
    T: 'static + ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> Borrow<T> for T where
    T: ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> BorrowMut<T> for T where
    T: ?Sized
[src]

impl<T> From<T> for T[src]

impl<T, U> Into<U> for T where
    U: From<T>, 
[src]

impl<T> ToOwned for T where
    T: Clone
[src]

type Owned = T

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.

impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for T where
    U: Into<T>, 
[src]

type Error = Infallible

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for T where
    U: TryFrom<T>, 
[src]

type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.